16 Ransomware Protection Strategies – How to Keep Your Data Safe


Currently, the threat of ransomware attacks looms large over businesses of all sizes. These malicious attacks can cause substantial financial losses, data breaches, and operational disruptions. As organizations increasingly rely on technology, it is vital to implement robust ransomware protection measures.

Read on to find out more about ransomware, the importance of malware protection, and how a Zero Trust approach can defend against ransomware attacks. By understanding the evolving threat landscape and implementing proactive measures, you can shield your business from the impact of ransomware attacks.

What is Ransomware?

Ransomware is a type of malicious software designed to encrypt files or lock computer systems, holding them hostage until a ransom is paid. Hence, its name. Ransomware is a growing threat, with attackers exploiting vulnerabilities in networks and devices to gain unauthorized access.

Once infected, ransomware encrypts important files, rendering them inaccessible to the victim. Attackers then demand a ransom, usually in cryptocurrency, in exchange for providing the decryption key to restore access.

Ransomware attacks can have severe consequences, causing financial losses, reputational damage, and even the loss of sensitive data. This is why it is crucial for businesses to fully understand the nature of ransomware and employ robust security measures to protect their systems and data from it.

How Does Ransomware Work?  

Ransomware operates through a systematic process that is designed to disrupt the business’s digital infrastructure. Usually, it starts with a user unknowingly downloading or executing a malicious file, often disguised as a legitimate document or email attachment.

Once inside the system, the ransomware begins its malicious activities, encrypting files using complex algorithms to render them inaccessible. In some cases, ransomware can also lock the entire computer system, preventing users from accessing any files or applications.

This is then commonly followed by a ransom demand, often displayed as a ransom note, providing instructions on how to pay the attackers to regain access to the compromised data or system. 

Common Signs of a Ransomware Attack

Here are the most common symptoms of a ransomware attack:

1. Device Lock

A splash screen appears upon startup, preventing users from logging in, and demanding payment.

2. Unusual File Extensions

Files have unfamiliar extensions like. crypted or .cryptor, or sometimes the extensions are completely missing.

3. Inaccessible Files 

When attempting to open certain files, users encounter error messages indicating that Windows or iOS cannot find or open them.

4. Payment Notice

The hacker responsible for infecting the device provides instructions on how to make the payment to regain access to your files.

Types of Ransomware

Understanding the different types of ransomware is essential for developing effective defense strategies. There are two prominent categories of ransomware: Commodity ransomware and Human-operated ransomware.

By examining their characteristics, tactics, and potential impacts, businesses can gain valuable insights into the diverse landscape of ransomware threats and enhance their preparedness.

Commodity Ransomware

Commodity ransomware, also known as “off-the-shelf” or “do-it-yourself” ransomware, is readily available for cybercriminals to acquire and deploy. It is typically designed for widespread distribution and targets many victims randomly. Commodity ransomware often spreads through spam emails, exploit kits, malicious attachments, or compromised websites.

This type of ransomware utilizes automated techniques, such as encryption algorithms, to lock victims’ files and demands ransom payments for decryption. Due to its accessibility and simplicity, commodity ransomware poses a significant risk to both individuals and organizations, leading to financial losses and operational disruptions.

Human-Operated Ransomware

Unlike commodity ransomware, human-operated ransomware involves the direct involvement of skilled threat actors. These cybercriminals employ sophisticated techniques, such as targeted phishing campaigns, and network compromise, to gain unauthorized access to high-value targets.

Human-operated ransomware attacks often leverage social engineering tactics, exploit vulnerabilities, and employ custom-built malware. Here’s how it works: the attackers carefully select their victims, focusing on organizations with valuable data or critical infrastructure.

This type of ransomware attack involves manual control and customization, allowing threat actors to adapt their tactics based on the victim’s network environment, making it harder to detect and remediate. Human-operated ransomware attacks tend to result in more substantial ransom demands and can cause severe financial and reputational damage to targeted entities.

By examining the distinct characteristics of commodity ransomware and human-operated ransomware, businesses can better understand the diverse nature of ransomware threats and implement appropriate security measures to mitigate their risks.

Famous Ransomware Examples

Famous ransomware strains have gained notoriety in the realm of cyber threats, wreaking havoc on individuals, businesses, and even government entities. These malicious programs exhibit varying degrees of sophistication and impact, demanding attention from cybersecurity professionals worldwide. Below is a list of some of the most infamous ransomware attacks:


Dharma ransomware, first identified in 2016, gained infamy for its wide distribution and versatile attack vectors. Here’s how it works:

  • It primarily spreads through spam emails, malicious attachments, and exploit kits
  • It encrypts files using strong encryption algorithms and appends various extensions to them. 
  • Victims are presented with ransom notes demanding payment in cryptocurrency, often including contact details for negotiation. 

Since its inception, it has evolved with multiple variants, making it a persistent threat in the ransomware landscape.


Also known as REvil, Sodinokibi is a human-operated ransomware strain that emerged in 2019. It gained noteworthy attention due to its affiliation with a well-organized cybercriminal group. Here’s how it works:

  • It leverages various attack vectors, including phishing campaigns, exploit kits, and remote desktop protocol (RDP) vulnerabilities. 
  • Once inside a system, it encrypts files and demands hefty ransom payments.

To date, it has targeted numerous high-profile victims, causing substantial financial and reputational damage.


Maze ransomware garnered attention for its “double extortion” technique. It not only encrypts files but also exfiltrates sensitive data, threatening to publish it if the ransom is not paid. Here’s how it works:

  • Maze employs sophisticated tactics and actively targets organizations across various industries. 
  • It often spreads through exploit kits, phishing emails, and vulnerable Remote Desktop Protocol (RDP) connections.

Maze has been responsible for numerous high-profile data breaches and has been a significant driver behind the increasing trend of data exfiltration alongside ransom demands.


Ryuk is a notorious ransomware strain that gained prominence for its highly targeted and lucrative attacks. Believed to be operated by a sophisticated cybercriminal group, Ryuk typically infiltrates systems through spear-phishing campaigns and exploits vulnerable network services. Here’s how it works:

  • Once inside a network, Ryuk encrypts files and demands substantial ransom payments, often tailored to the victim’s financial capacity. 

It has targeted organizations in various sectors, including healthcare and finance, causing significant disruptions and financial losses.


Netwalker ransomware, active since 2019, has been responsible for numerous high-profile attacks against organizations worldwide. Here’s how it works:

  • It primarily spreads through phishing emails, exploiting vulnerabilities, and compromising Remote Desktop Protocol (RDP) connections. 
  • It employs strong encryption algorithms to lock victims’ files and demands payment in cryptocurrency. 

Notable characteristics of Netwalker include its use of a ransomware-as-a-service (RaaS) model, where affiliates operate the ransomware on behalf of the developers, leading to a wider distribution and increased threat landscape.


GandCrab was one of the most notorious ransomware families before its retirement in 2019. It was known for its widespread distribution and rapid evolution, making it challenging for security researchers to keep up. Here’s how it works:

  • It is primarily spread through exploit kits, malicious email attachments, and compromised websites. 
  • It employs strong encryption algorithms and demands ransom payments in cryptocurrencies. 

The developers behind GandCrab boasted about their illicit earnings and regularly released updates to stay ahead of security measures.


Conti ransomware gained prominence in 2020 and quickly became a significant threat to organizations worldwide. It is often delivered through phishing emails, exploit kits, and compromised Remote Desktop Protocol (RDP) connections. Here’s how it works:

  • It utilizes advanced techniques and tools to infiltrate networks, escalate privileges, and encrypt files. 
  • The ransom demands associated with Conti attacks are often substantial, reflecting the group’s focus on high-value targets. 
  • Notable features of Conti include its use of double extortion tactics, where stolen data is threatened to be leaked if the ransom is not paid.

Understanding the characteristics and activities of these infamous ransomware strains is crucial for organizations to bolster their defense mechanisms and minimize the potential impact of such threats.

Reacting to Ransomware: Effective Steps and Strategies

Dealing with a ransomware attack requires prompt and strategic action to mitigate the potential damage and restore normalcy. By employing decoy files, propagation blocking techniques, sandbox environments, and fuzzy detection mechanisms, businesses can enhance their response capabilities and minimize the impact of ransomware attacks. Read on to learn more about the following protection strategies:

1. Employ Decoy Files

Creating decoy files is a solid proactive measure to mislead ransomware and protect critical data. By generating realistic-looking dummy files and strategically placing them within systems and networks, organizations can divert the attention of ransomware.

These decoy files, often designed to mimic valuable data, can act as a deterrent, potentially causing ransomware to encrypt irrelevant or non-existent files instead.

2. Employ Propagation Blocking

Propagation blocking focuses on preventing the lateral movement of ransomware within a network. This strategy involves segmenting networks and applying strict access controls to limit the spread of the ransomware from its initial entry point.

By isolating infected devices or segments and restricting communication channels, organizations can minimize the impact of ransomware and prevent it from affecting critical systems and data.

3. Use Sandbox Environments

A sandbox environment is a controlled and isolated testing environment that allows for the safe execution of potentially malicious files and programs.

By running suspicious files in a sandbox, organizations can analyze their behavior, and identify potential ransomware threats, in addition to developing appropriate countermeasures. Sandboxing provides a crucial layer of defense, enabling security teams to assess and understand the nature of ransomware attacks without risking the compromise of production systems.

4. Use Fuzzy Detection

Fuzzy detection, also known as heuristic analysis, involves identifying ransomware patterns and behaviors based on known indicators and characteristics.

Unlike traditional signature-based detection methods that rely on specific malware signatures, fuzzy detection analyzes file behavior and attributes, such as file encryption behavior and anomalous network connections. This approach helps identify new or unknown variants of ransomware, allowing for proactive detection and response before the full impact is realized.

Ransomware Protection Solutions for Businesses

Below is a list of proactive measures that organizations can implement to safeguard their systems and data against ransomware attacks:

Update your Software

Regularly updating software, including operating systems, applications, and security solutions, is crucial for protecting against ransomware. Updates should include patches and fixes for vulnerabilities that cybercriminals can exploit. 

Use Multiple Security Layers

Employing a combination of antivirus software, firewalls, intrusion detection systems, and advanced threat protection solutions can enhance overall security posture. This is because each layer adds an extra barrier against ransomware, making it more challenging for malicious actors to penetrate and compromise the network.

Train Your Employees

Conducting regular training sessions on identifying suspicious emails, avoiding malicious websites, and practicing good password hygiene can empower employees to be the first line of defense against ransomware. By fostering a security-conscious culture, businesses can significantly reduce the risk of successful ransomware attacks.

Configure Access Controls

Properly configuring access controls, such as user permissions and privileges, helps limit the spread of ransomware within a network. Granting access based on the principle of least privilege ensures that employees only have the necessary permissions required to perform their tasks, reducing the likelihood of unauthorized access and minimizing the potential impact of ransomware infections.

Use Multi-Factor Authentication

Implementing multi-factor authentication (MFA) adds an extra layer of security to user logins. By requiring users to provide multiple forms of verification, such as a password and a unique code sent to their mobile device, MFA reduces the risk of unauthorized access, making it harder for attackers to compromise user accounts and gain entry into critical systems.

Implement Strong Password Requirements

Enforcing strong password requirements, such as length, complexity, and regular password changes, helps protect against brute-force attacks and unauthorized access. Requiring employees to create unique and robust passwords helps mitigate the risk of ransomware infiltrating systems through compromised credentials.

Backup Your Data

Regularly backing up important data is essential for ransomware protection. By maintaining offline or cloud-based backups, businesses can restore their systems and files in case of a ransomware incident. It is crucial to ensure backups are securely stored and regularly tested to guarantee their integrity and effectiveness.

Set Up Spam Filters

Deploying robust spam filters helps reduce the chances of employees receiving malicious ransomware emails. Spam filters can identify and block suspicious emails, preventing them from reaching users’ inboxes and mitigating the risk of accidental clicks on malicious links or attachments.

Set Up Application Whitelisting

Application whitelisting is a security measure that allows only pre-approved and trusted applications to run on systems, preventing unauthorized or malicious programs from executing. By implementing application whitelisting, businesses can control what software is permitted to run, minimizing the possibility of ransomware infections.

Stay on Top of New Threats 

Maintaining awareness of emerging ransomware threats and staying informed about the latest attack techniques should not be underrated. Regularly monitoring security news, subscribing to threat intelligence services, and participating in industry forums can help organizations proactively adapt their defense strategies to counter new ransomware threats effectively.

Check Email Senders

Verifying the authenticity of email senders before opening attachments or clicking on links is vital. Hovering over links to inspect the URL and scrutinizing email addresses for inconsistencies can help identify phishing attempts and prevent ransomware infections.

Adopt Zero Trust Frameworks

Implementing a Zero Trust framework involves treating every user and device as potentially untrusted, even when operating within the internal network. This approach requires verifying identity, applying access controls, continuously monitoring user activities, reducing the risk of lateral movement, and minimizing the impact of ransomware attacks.

By implementing the above ransomware protection solutions, businesses can significantly enhance their defenses and reduce the likelihood of falling victim to ransomware threats. A comprehensive and layered approach to security is key to safeguarding valuable data and maintaining business continuity.

Protect Your Business Against Ransomware

Ransomware is a prevalent and ever-evolving threat to businesses of all sizes. The consequences of a successful ransomware attack can be devastating to an organization, invariably leading to financial losses, reputational damage, and operational disruptions.

By implementing robust protection strategies and following best practices, businesses can significantly mitigate the risk of ransomware incidents. Furthermore, maintaining a proactive and vigilant stance toward cybersecurity is crucial.

By fostering a culture of security awareness and promoting a proactive approach to ransomware protection, businesses can better safeguard their systems, data, and overall operations.


What is Ransomware Protection?
Ransomware protection refers to a set of proactive measures and security practices designed to prevent, detect, and mitigate the impact of ransomware attacks. It involves implementing various strategies, such as using robust security software, educating employees, backing up data, and regularly updating systems to minimize the risk of falling victim to ransomware.
What is the best defense against ransomware?
The best defense against ransomware involves a combination of preventative and reactive measures. It includes implementing robust security solutions, such as antivirus software, firewalls, and intrusion detection systems, regularly updating software, practicing safe computing practices, backing up data, and educating employees on ransomware threats and phishing attacks.

A multi-layered approach that addresses vulnerabilities and emphasizes user awareness is key to an effective defense against ransomware.
Do I need ransomware protection?
Yes, businesses and individuals alike need ransomware protection. Ransomware attacks can cause significant financial and operational damage, leading to data loss, reputational harm, and even business closure.

As ransomware continues to evolve and become more sophisticated, investing in proper protection measures becomes essential to mitigate the risk and minimize the potential impact of an attack.
How can ransomware be prevented?
Ransomware can be prevented through a combination of proactive measures. Some key prevention strategies include:

Regularly updating software and operating systems to patch vulnerabilities.
Implementing robust security solutions, such as antivirus software, firewalls, and email filters.
Educating employees on safe computing practices, including how to identify phishing attempts and avoid clicking on suspicious links or opening malicious attachments.

Backing up critical data regularly and storing it securely offline or in the cloud.

Implementing access controls, strong authentication methods, and least privilege principles to limit unauthorized access.

Monitoring network traffic and user behavior for early detection of potential ransomware activity.
Conducting regular security audits and vulnerability assessments to identify and address any weaknesses in the system.

By adopting a proactive and comprehensive approach to ransomware prevention, organizations can significantly reduce the risk of falling victim to these damaging attacks and safeguard their valuable data and systems.